They held focus groups about totally different topics during which they served hot coffee just to watch people interact with potential cups. Murphy became obsessed with the “cup management process,” which told him whether or not a cup was any good. “You’re holding the cup,” he says. “After a few seconds, it starts to get a little bit too hot. So you put it in your left hand while your right hand cools. Then you switch back. And then you end up doing the sort of Maui hang loose, where you put your thumb on the top of the lid and your pinky on the bottom of the cup.” Any test cup that resulted in a Maui hang loose did not go any further. Murphy did not want his customers to have to solve the problem of cups that were too hot to hold; he wanted them to have a cup they could hold with one hand the entire time.